Saturday, May 23, 2020

The Enigma Of Capital And The Crisis Of Capitalism By...

Marcus Rincon International Political Economy A.Yansane Monday- Wednesday 210-350 Enigma Capital INTRODUCTION The book that I chose to do my book review on was The Enigma of Capital and The Crisis of Capitalism by David Harvey. (Oxford University Press, 2011). The book is about capital flow and how it dictates the very essence of our everyday life. Harvey’s purpose of the book is to help gain a critical understanding of the systemic logic of capitalism and of the role that periodic crisis plays. Within that logic begins with a detailed account of the current crisis. Harvey then sets this crisis in longer term historical context presenting it as the latest, and most serious, of a series of structural crises that have emerged since the post-war boom got attention in the early 1970s. Capitalism, Harvey explains, has in effect moved from one crisis to another since the end of the long boom. In fact, for Harvey, capitalism never really resolves its crisis tendencies; they are merely shifted around, postponed and held off. For me, this is one of the most impressive sections of the book. Ha rvey manages to provide an in-depth overview of the present crisis and of major macroeconomic developments and trends over the last 40 or so years. SUMMARY The first thing this book tackles is the foreclosure crisis that hit America in 2006 and how it escalated, but how it only affected the minorities of the time and lower-income people. Harvey doesn’t only target the lower class; he doesShow MoreRelatedThe Enigma Of Capital And The Crisis Of Capitalism3168 Words   |  13 PagesCritical Review of David Harvey’s The Enigma of Capital and the Crisis of Capitalism Sudheer Vemuru Economics 490 10 November, 2014 In writing this paper, I have abided by the Honor Code at UNC-Chapel Hill. Signature:____________________ ______________________ ï ¿ ¼ The Enigma of Capital and the Crisis of Capitalism is a forum for author David Harvey to voice his concerns on the contemporary global capitalist model. As a Marxist geographer and anthropologist, Harvey analyzes modern capitalism through a lensRead MoreOrganisational Theory230255 Words   |  922 Pagesto our understanding of organizations. Professor Tomas Mà ¼llern, Jà ¶nkà ¶ping International Business School, Sweden . McAuley, Duberley and Johnson’s Organizational Theory takes you on a joyful ride through the developments of one of the great enigmas of our time – How should we understand the organization? Jan Ole Similà ¤, Assistant Professor, Nord-Trà ¸ndelag University College, Norway I really enjoyed this new text and I am sure my students will enjoy it, too. It combines rigorous theoretical argumentRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words   |  656 PagesCommunity in Autotown, U.S.A. Van Gosse and Richard Moser, eds., The World the Sixties Made: Politics and Culture in Recent America Joanne Meyerowitz, ed., History and September 11th John McMillian and Paul Buhle, eds., The New Left Revisited David M. Scobey, Empire City: The Making and Meaning of the New York City Landscape Gerda Lerner, Fireweed: A Political Autobiography Allida M. Black, ed., Modern American Queer History Eric Sandweiss, St. Louis: The Evolution of an American Urban Landscape Read MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words   |  1617 Pagesclass. Chapter-by-chapter activities, including built-in pretests and posttests, focus on what you need to learn and to review in order to succeed. Visit www.mymanagementlab.com to learn more. DEVELOPING MANAGEMENT SKILLS EIGHTH EDITION David A. Whetten BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY Kim S. Cameron UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN Prentice Hall Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto Delhi

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

A Small Number Of Key Concepts Have Become Very Significant To Operations Managers - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 7 Words: 2054 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Management Essay Type Compare and contrast essay Level High school Did you like this example? Over recent years, a small number of key concepts have become very significant to Operations Managers. Four of these concepts are: Customer Care Kaizen Just-in-Time Total Quality Management Your task is to compare and contrast each of these four concepts, clearly describing each. Your work should help the reader to understand how each interrelates to the others and how, if properly applied, they will help any organisation to be a success. In order to understand the four concepts of customer care, kaizen, just-in-time and total quality management, there is a need to understand operations management and what this entails in the relationship between the four concepts and operations management. It is vital to the task to understand the meaning of each of the concepts in relation to operations management as well as to the business in which it is situated. Operations management is the area of business practice which is associated with the production of goods and services. It involves the responsibility of ensuring that business operations are efficient through the use of as little resources as possible and also that the customer requirements are met in and effect ive and efficient manner. According to Bartol et al (1998: p. 53), operations management Is the function, or field of expertise, that is primarily responsible for managing the production and delivery of an organisations products and services. The main use of operations management is the management of the process that converts inputs into outputs. Every organisation has an operational function, because every organisation produces a good or service for its consumers. According to Slack (1999: p. 122), operations managers are ‘the staff of the organisation who have particular responsibility for managing some, or all of the resources which comprise the operations function. The main aim of operations management is to increase the organisations value added activities within any given process. This organisational aim is helped along by the four concepts mentioned earlier – customer care, Kaizan, Just-in-Time and Total Quality Management (TQM). Each of t hese concepts are integral to the productivity of the organisation and to its overall success within the business environment. Customer service is often referred to as customer support operations and this provides the activities which support the customer in the use of the organisations products as well as providing the means by which the equipment is serviced. Customer care is the after sales service which is often regarded as the need to satisfy warranty requirements. According to Slack (1999: p. 30) many organisations mistakenly believe that this is relevant after a sale has been made, ‘However, customer service and support is influenced by, and should influence, earlier stages in the contact with customers and the design and production of products. This philosophy is one of a consistency of service for customers by means of a designed and built-in serviceability of products. The role of customer care should be an integral part of the organisations servic e strategy. Customer care is driven by three factors: Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "A Small Number Of Key Concepts Have Become Very Significant To Operations Managers" essay for you Create order Its initial purchase price The cost of failure to customers, and Its reliability index. Customer care is important to any organisation and in order to gain customer approval, the organisation must concentrate on not only the quality of the product or service but also on the customer service both while the customer is in the process of buying the product but also in the aftercare period of the product. Kaizen is the Japanese word for improvement and refers to the philosophy that focuses on continuous improvement in manufacturing and business activities. The concept of Kaizan was implemented first in Japan during the post-war economic miracle and has spread through the global business environment. Kaizan refers to the continual improvement of all the business functions of the organisation, from the manufacturing of the product to the management of the organisation, from senior management to assembly line workers. Kaizans aim is to eliminate waste through the improvement of standardised business activities and processes. The process of Kaizan when completed corr ectly ensures that the workplace is humanised and sees the elimination of overly hard work, and through this process increases productivity. In order for the concept of Kaizan to work, there is the need for the participation of all of the organisations employees from senior management to the assembly line. The key elements which are crucial to the process of Kaizan are Quality Effort Involvement of all employees Willingness to change Communication. It is important to the concept of Kaizan that the theories of teamwork are established as well personal discipline and an improved morale from the employees as well as the establishment of quality circles and suggestions for improvement. Just-in-Time is the modern day Western approach which has been developed from Japanese companies in the 1950s and 1960s. The primary objective of Just-in-Time is to make the time between the order of the customer and the payment of cash. Just-in-Time is the process which is the integration of philosophy and techniques which are used to improved performance. According to Slack (1999: p. 85) ‘only the customer is free to place demand when he or she wants: after that the JIT system should take over to assure the rapid and co-ordinated movement of parts throughout the system to meet that demand. The key philosophy behind Just-in-Time is to squeeze out waste at every junction. Waste, by definition in this context is defined by any activity which does not add value. Just-in-Time can be defined as a quest for superior performance manufacturing. Just-in-Time operations are done as and when they are needed. According to Waters (2002 p. 454) ‘In essence, just-in-time or JIT organises all operations so the occur at exactly the time they are needed. They are not done too early (which would leave products and materials hanging around until they were actually needed) and they are not done too late (which would give poor customer service). The management philosophy of Total Quality Management (TQM), according to Slack (1999 p.224) embraces ‘all activities through which the needs and expectations of the customer and the and the community, and the objectives of the organisation are satisfied in the most efficient and cost effective way by maximising the potential of all employees in a continuing drive for improvement. Total Quality Management places emphasis on the planning and organ isation features which are integral to the quality improvement process. There is a need for a long term approach for Total Quality Management which needs to be integrated with the other strategies such as information technology, operations and human resources, organisational business plans etc, in order for the business to compete within the environment. For the Total Quality Management process to be successful, effective use of the quality systems and procedures are imperative to the running of the system. Total Quality Management has become a particularly important development and the effects of this process are likely to remain in good organisations. This concept is the realisation that poor quality can cost the organisation in terms of cash and loss of the future market share, whereas excellent quality can offer the organisation a definite competitive advantage. These four key concepts of operations management are essential to operations managers in determining the futu re of the business and are important in significance to the nature of success of the business and how it is run. All four concepts of customer care, Kaizan, Just-in-Time and Total Quality Management are all interrelated to each other through their respective processes and if these concepts are properly applied they can guarantee the success of the organisation. The concepts are all essential to the workings of the organisation and these concepts are overseen by the operations manager. The concept of customer care is seen by the operations manager as essential to the overall success in the organisation through the value which the product or service has added as well the aftercare service which is provided whether this is by technical support or through a warranty which the organisation has provided. According to Bartol et al (1998: p. 588) on the subject of managing customer contact ‘Experts argue that the degree to which a service can be efficient is directly related to the extent of the customer contact. This can be related to the other concepts especially with regards to wastage. The more time the employ has to manage contact with the customer, the more time they are neglecting other aspects of the operation. Contact with the customer can lead to a greater prospect of requests from the customer, changes in the instructions which had been finalised or the desire for the customer to chat can be seen as wastage. The role of the operations manager is to control this contact in a manageable and reasonable fashion so that there is no major loss to the company. This in turn can be linked to the Just-in-Time system which controls the inventory as described by Bartol et al (1998: p. 565) ‘an approach to inventory control that emphasises having materials arrive just as they are needed in the production process. It is important in supply and demand as well as the value chain when adding value to the service, the product and the comp any that this inventory system is vital to the successful running of the organisation. This inventory system is also overseen by the operations manager and like customer care it is necessary to allow little wastage in order for the implementation of successful future planning. With the Just-in-Time system high quality is a vital necessity as the production is reliant on the materials being provided by the supplier in a timely manner. It is up to the operations manager to monitor and stay on top of this operation to allow production to be continuous. In relation to the concept of Kaizan, it is up to the operations manager to guide their employees through the process. There is no set group through which Kaizan can be initiated, it can be through the individual, a small group or a large group. Through this concept of Kaizan, the process can generate in organisations Total Quality Management and helps free up the efforts through improvements in productivity through the organisa tions employees. Total Quality Management as part of the operations management process is important in conjunction with the other three concepts. Bartol et al (1998: p. 544) defines the process as ‘A management system that is an integral part of an organisations strategy and is aimed at continually improving product and service quality so as to achieve high levels of customer satisfaction and build strong customer loyalty. All four of these concepts are interrelated and cannot be separated from each other in a successful organisation. It is important that the operations manager understand the needs for these concepts and how they affect the overall success of the business and how both customer loyalty and employee morale are important to the direction of the organisation for future planning. It is important to the role of the operations manager for these concepts to be installed in the organisational ethos and so that they are not separated and can be worked in conjunction with each of the concepts. The role of the operations manager within the organisation is to oversee the production side of the organisation and with the four concepts implemented successfully, this can place both a greater emphasis on future planning and success of the organisation as well as building customer loyalty and employee morale, therefore allowing the organisation, the customer and the employee to have an element of satisfaction. Bibliography Bartol, K.M., Martin, D.C., (1998) Management, McGraw Hill Bettley, A., Mayle, D., Tantoush, T., (2005) Operations Management: A Strategic Approach, Sage Publications/ The Open University Bicheno, J., Elliott, B.B.R., (2002) Operations Management: An Active Learning Approach, Blackwell Publishers Ltd Brown, S., Blackmon, K., Cousins, P., Maylor, H., (2001) Operations Management: Policy, Practice and Performance Management, Butterworth-Heinemann Greasley, A., (2008) Operations Management, Sage Publications Lewis, M., Slack, N., (2003) Operations Management: Critical Perspectives on Business and Management, Routledge Lowson, R.H., (2002) Strategic Operations Management: The New Competitive Advantage, Routledge Needham, D., Dransfield, R., Harris, R., Coles, M., (1995) Business for Higher Awards, Heinemann Shim, J.K., Siegel, J.G., (1999) Operations Management, Barron Educational Series Slack, N., (1999) The Blackwell Encyclopedic Dictionary of Operat ions Management, Blackwell Publishers Ltd Waters, D., (2002) Operations Management: Producing Goods and Services, FT/ Prentice Hall

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Whi Is Ihrm Such an Important Issue for Mne’s Free Essays

Why is IHRM such an important issue for MNE’s? International Human Resources Management is the process of procuring, allocating, and effectively utilizing human resources in a multinational corporation. It is born thanks to globalization and to the growth of multinational enterprises all around the world. Globalization and the effective use of international human resources are two major issues facing firms in today’s global economy. We will write a custom essay sample on Whi Is Ihrm Such an Important Issue for Mne’s ? or any similar topic only for you Order Now As more and more firms operate internationally, there is a clear need to understand how to manage human resources that are located outside the domestic environment. A HRM system cannot be an efficient approach for a multinational enterprise (MNE) to optimize their employees’ performances because compared to IHRM: it has less HR activities, a smaller perspective, less involvement in employees’ personal lives, and difficulties to adapt to the workforce mix (expatriates and locals). Indeed, an MNE has to deal with different types of employees: * Host-country Nationals (HCNs): locals of a country a MNE operates in a subsidiary. * Parent-country Nationals (PCNs): expatriates from the country where the MNE has its headquarters. Third country Nationals (TCNs): employees from countries other than the host or home country. These are also expatriates. The correlation between HCNs and PCNs in an MNE is crucial because they both have different points of view about the activity. HCNs are useful thanks to their knowledge of foreign market, language and needs and they know human resources policies for local employees, whereas PCNs have the abilit y to maintain control (for example with a newly established subsidiary), to adapt an ethnocentric attitude and to process an expatriation management (staffing, training, compensation). An IHRM system is a product of distinct activities, functions and processes that are directed at attracting, developing and maintaining the human resources of a MNE. Indeed, IHRM seeks to assist organizations to make the most effective use of their human resources in the international context. Schuler said: â€Å"IHRM for many firms is likely to be critical to their success, and effective IHRM can make the difference between survival and extinction for many MNEs†. This quote means that an MNE has different choices for its IHRM approach. The four generic IHRM orientations of MNEs: ethnocentric, polycentric, geocentric, and regiocentric, introduced by Perlmutter (1969) and Perlmutter and Heenan (1979), are widely recognized. * In an ethnocentric approach, the MNE exports the home HRM system abroad. Strategic decisions are made at the headquarters and subsidiaries are managed by expatriates. Like Porter said: â€Å"In a global industry, a firm must integrate its activities like HRM on a worldwide basis to capture the linkages among countries†. * An MNE with a polycentric approach adapts to the local HRM system that the local companies use. Foreign subsidiaries have a large autonomy and HCNs fill the senior positions. HCNs are more likely to be promoted to positions at headquarters. * In a geocentric approach, the MNE takes a worldwide approach to its operations: employees can be promoted to senior positions in both headquarters and subsidiaries according to their capabilities, regardless of nationality and location. * The regiocentric approach is similarly to the geocentric approach, but senior managers enjoy regional rather than global autonomy in decision-making. Each of these four approaches has certain advantages and disadvantages. The choice of approaches to IHRM depends on the interaction of home-country factors, host-country factors and firm characteristics. The firm has to adapt its HRM activities to each host country’s specific requirements. It is also linked to cultural environment, like Hofstede said: â€Å"Culture awareness from senior and middle management is essential†. The location of the country is one aspect of the context in which MNEs operate. The home-country factors include home HRM systems and domestic political, legal, economic and sociocultural factors. These factors impact on IHRM through their influence on a firm’s characteristics. Organizations in one country might thus share many similarities while being essentially different from those headquartered in other countries. According to Ferner (1997), even the most global companies remain deeply rooted in the national business systems of their country of origin. Without any internal or external influence, an MNE would export all of its own home HRM system to subsidiaries. IHRM is definitely an essential issue for MNEs because it depends on it to avoid barriers of distance, language, time and culture between employees, which often make it very difficult for managers to resolve conflicts. Nowadays, we can still wonder if it is possible to develop a generic IHRM model that could be widely applicable. â€Å"IHRM is of fundamental importance in realizing an efficient and effective multinational organization because it enables the firm to deal with control and cross-cultural issues that are both internal and external to the firm† (Adler and Ghadar 1990). How to cite Whi Is Ihrm Such an Important Issue for Mne’s ?, Essay examples

Friday, May 1, 2020

Role of Family in the Capitalist Organization-Samples for Students

Question: Discuss about the Role of Family in the Capitalist Social Organisation. Answer: Introduction The essay focuses on the role of family in the capitalist social organization. Capitalist social organization now exists in all the nations around the globe. Under this organization, the means for production and distribution of products that includes technology, land and transport system etc are basically owned by less minority of individuals. The capitalist organization describes the institution that is featured by the hierarchical dominance and bureaucartic corporations (Genovese 2014). Family has huge significance in carrying out this essential production, consumption and accumulation functions, which are associated with both the social as well as economic empowerment of people. The main pathways to all these functions and to social as well as economic empowerment mainly include family resilience and capital. The family executes ideological functions in this capitalist social organization. The family mainly acts as the consumption unit and teaches acceptance of hierarchy. It is ba sically the organization through which wealthy people pass down their properties to their child and hence this leads to class inequality. Industrial capitalist social organization has affected several family structures. They play decisive role in legally transferring ownership rights in the capitalist social organization. The social organization that integrates in the capitalist society treats by the similar laws as that of the individuals (Glavin and Schieman 2012). This social organization can take the legal action and can also purchase and sell the properties. The main motive of this capitalist social organization is to attain higher profit and to provide freedom to the individuals. In this type of organization, all the individuals in the family invests to build the relationship as well as improve their skills of communication as they helps in believing that social capital has been the vital factor for the success of the individuals. Role of family in capitalist social organization Social organizations are mainly the establishment that helps in functioning of a society. This institution is basically considered as the societies backbone. It becomes difficult for the society to achieve its fulfillment without this social organization. Even they help in organizing the society as well as its people. The family has been considered as the significant group for the society and the individuals. In addition, they plays a crucial role in forming the human society by binding each of their members. The family is also defined as the transformation point of peoples culture. The main characteristics of the family are given as under- Universality- the family has been considered as universal as social unit. The reason behind this universality is that it helps in performing several functions that are indispensable for society as well as the individuals. Emotional basis-Each members of the family has been emotionally attached with each other. This means that each member in the family makes sacrifices for their welfare. Regulations in society- the family usually runs based on the social norms. Moreover, the members of the family has been provided with training in order to follow customs as well as social norms in the socialization procedure. Inter-relationship as well as interactions between the members has been generally guided by legal as well as social regulations. The familys role is to fulfill the economic requirements all of their members to a particular extent by giving them all the necessities that includes clothing, shelter etc. sometimes the members work together in pursuing certain occupation, which in turn provides steady employment and income to each member of a particular family. the role of family in the capitalist social organization has changed over the years under the influence of the said factors namely- Industrialization, modern education, urbanization, legislative measures etc. the family size has been significantly decreased under urbanization as well as industrializations influence. In addition, evolution of nuclear families has transformed the inter-relationship between their members. There has been decline in functions that are performed by few families to the substantial extent. However, many organizations were initiated in order to cater the requirements of each members of family came up although their functions being pa rticular and not being holistic. In the primitive society and in settled districts, the family usually carries all the vital industrial activities (Deephouse, D.L. and Jaskiewicz, 2013). In this organization, the family produces various types of raw material, produces finished goods and even consumes the same. However, the development of complex society leads to the huge industrial labor division. Hence, the family has been delegated into industrial activities to this organization. According to the World population action plan, the family has been defined as the central unit of the society and hence must be confined by appropriate policy as well as legislation. It has been opined by (), that the families play vital socio-economic as well as cultural functions in each country. Despite several reforms that have revised their functions, the families continued to give financial as well as emotional support that is vital to the development of the members. However, the family in every for m is basically the keystone of the global community. Being the key representative of socialization, the families has also been considered as the crucial means of transmitting as well as preserving the cultural values. In the broader sense, the families often aid in educating and motivating their members and thereby act as the significant source of their future development. The families also acts as the vital agents of the societys development and hence their contribution to such areas leads to decisive success. It has been argued by Gilpin, (2016), that the family has been considered as one organization within the capitalist society that operates in regulating the desire of members through proscription. Therefore, the capitalist social organization facilitates in producing the oedipal framework of the capitalist society. The oedipal structure in Freudian terms refers to the relationship between the children, mother reflecting the desire object and father being the authority who inte rvenes between object and its desire. In addition, the capitalist social organization highlights the oedipal framework that has been modeled on families. The function of the families in this capitalist organization is to conduit desire as well as to endorse the authoritys internalizationb (Hodson 2014). For example, the framework of the capitalist social institute mimics the family with emphasizing on groups and the individuals in authority. Ironically, the family has been prevalent in some structures of organization that signifies unity, paternalism and harmony. The social organizations are not mainly the functional arrangements for manufacture of products and services, but are the mechanisms of self-creation and the crucial part of society oedipalization. Moreover, this social organization helps in providing the products and services in response to the demand of the customers. In other words, they exist in channeling the desire into manufacturing as well as consumption of output o f capitalism. In such social organization environment, the members of the families contribute in several processes for survival of household. In the capitalist period, the working class families in several forms have been considered as the non-capitalist organization. Even the family working under the capitalist social organization does not operate according to the principles of the capitalist that includes quest of profit, family members treatment as products and the market valuation as accounted by social worth (Lubinski, Fear and Prez 2013). In addition, the families are considered as the various types of social organizations from capitalist institute. On the contrary, if the capitalist social organization mainly relies on the capitalist principles, it will sell their services to the capitalist. The gendered labor division that characterizes the family was not present at that time. Moreover, the recent study highlights that industrialization has changed the roles of families in the capitalist s ocial organization by translating it from production unit into consumption unit. This change had occurred unevenly and this varied in terms of social class as well as occupation. In addition, industrialization has disrupted the relationship among the generations. The entrepreneurial families faced external realities for surviving financially. The organization that functions on the basis of capitalism believes that the investors role in the organization helps in creating business machine that in turn facilitates in gaining profit and is then returned to investors or shareholders. Additionally, the capitalist social organization believes that the companies leadership role in creating the culture considers all the multifaceted constituencies that is also known as stakeholders. One of the vital changes in the family as the institution has an significant effect in the society that basically comes as the result of industrialization as well as capitalism (Hayek 2012). The perspective of Marxism about the familys role in capitalist social organization is that the society that is structured along the lines of class with them generally works with the low elite classs interest those who have huge economic power (the Bourgeoisie) and that of the working class (the proletariat). The Bourgeoisie attains their asset from exploitation of proletariat. As a result, there is huge disagreement of interest between these two categories. However, this interest conflict boils over to revolution as the institution that includes the family performs the vital function of control or convincing the people and this reflects that the existing unequal system has been inevitable (Rose-Ackerman 2013). Another aspect that the Marxists recommend about the families is that they basically changes with the society and specifically the family emerges not due to the requirement of industrialization but only due to the requirement of capitalist system. The capitalist social institute under which individuals of the specific historical epoch as well as the specific nation lives is actually determined by the production type; by the various development stages of labor on one side and family on the other side (Lubinski, Fear and Prez 2012). In bourgeois epoch that has been contrasted with historical epoch, all the families became the main region of personal life, the respite place from the productive life and from alienated labor, which the laborers must face. The division between the personal and the productive relations as well as between the families and work is exclusive to the capitalist social organization. Moreover, in precapitalist social workers formation that has been operated within amalgamated life circumstances while working or not working, under capitalist social organization the family has one part of life at leisure and another part at work. It has been opined by (), the social worth and intellect of identity cannot be achieved in the productive worker under this capitalist social organization and hence the split of economic life from social illustrates that the interpersonal relations and the family took on larger burden. Marxists have critical view about the family and specifically about the nuclear family because they consider that it underpins capitalist ideology (Genovese 2014). Moreover, it has been argued by the Marxist that bourgeoisie (ruling class) have control over the society by possessing the production means that includes infrastructure, tools etc and thereby controls the proletariat (the working class). Under contemporary Marxism, the family has been depicted as the ideological apparatus, which means that it helps in socializing the individuals for thinking in the way that validates inequality as well as encourages all the people in accepting unchangeable capitalist system (Gilpin 2016). In this capitalist social organization, the owners of the business try to keep the wages of the laborers down in order to maximize profit. But in order to take this action, they must have the ability to sell the products of the workers or in other way create demand for the manufactured goods. In this case, the family plays the significant role in building demand for the products in several ways. This is explained below: Families tries to maintain with the material products and services that the neighbors as well as peers acquire that includes family holidays etc. In addition, there are vital types of advertising as well as TV programs that affect both the parents as well as children in this manner. Both the media as well as the organization mainly targets the children of the families in this advertising who then influence their parents with the help of pester power for purchasing expensive goods( Bartels 2016). However, this is especially bad for some countries where there are some restrictions on the advertisement that aim at children. One of the vital changes to families as the institution that in turn had significant influences on the womens position in the capitalist society that comes because of industrialization and origination of capitalism (Giddens, 2013). In this pre-industrial society, the families were not the part of economic classes that were basically the economic centers of production (Berkman, Kawachi and Glymour, 2014). The families in these capitalist social organizations organize the resource flow from the generations to the sectors that promotes the skills acquisition and societys modernization. In this organization, the families facilitates in serving the economic function that elicits savings as well as organizes investment in the individuals. Moreover, the family in this capitalist organization has been important in managing the risk of the business. In addition, the Marxist has different perspective about the familys function in this capitalist social institution. They provides the view that the main role of family is to generate huge labour power that helps in maintaining the capitalist society (Hodson and Sullivan 2012). It has been stated by Galaskiewicz, (2016), the family is the main control mechanism, which helps in exerting social control on their families. As the families exist in the capitalist society, both the children and parents faces huge competition in terms of advancement with the technology from their peers and other parents respectively. This huge pressure to exists in this competing society, the families adopts new competitive strategy (Firth 2016). However, this family has been considered as the integral part of commodity fetishism as it facilitates in fueling the initiation of false requirements that in order to satisfy needs the individuals hard work. The recent study reflects that the family has been seen playing the functions as ideological equipment in socializing the ideology of the pro-capitalist and their own for maintaining the family patterns during the period. The capitalist social organization motivated the workers in earning money in order to become independent. In addition, this organization provided new laborers who are socialized and disciplined. However, the family helps in making the laborers more effectual by fulfilling their requirements for shelter, food, clothing etc. The families play significant role in various social as well as economic settings (Alesina, A., Ardagna, S. and Trebbi 2016). The society was polarized between hierarchical organization and interplay of the decisions of the individual family members. Neither of the two by itself gives feasible way of organizing both social as well as economic interaction. The familys role in this organization is to strengthen the individual members capacity in fun ctioning and attaining their present and future targets and objectives. They also provided typical role model, which facilitate in keeping alive the insight that education has great value and steady employment being viable substitute to welfare. The family as an institution has three vital functions that includes to provide education to their children, to spread cultures between two generations and supporting their members in all types of work they do. Over the centuries, the family has been summarized as the work movement from household to market. This resulted to liberation of the people from redundant and shifting to main role of the families. The family was the main unit of both the political and economic production in the social organization before capitalism. The economy that was basically based on agriculture and on crafts, production in the economy was the main survival of the families and executed with limited capital that the families possessed. With this limited amount o f physical capital, the labor intensive production methods were needed in agriculture and this makes the families preferable. Conclusion The family functions in transmitting social possessions between two generations. Properties in form of personal properties, land and hence the societies allows these families in passing along the generations. In addition, the family transmits the material commodities between the generations. As the family has been considered as the base of society , the development as well as the progress of the capitalist society based on the development of sound family. In other words, the families has been the primary unit of the capitalist social organization in each societies (Apple, 2013). Since prehistoric period, the families have been serving as the basic institution for providing the individuals with basic requirements and satisfying the individuals requirement for support. Various types of families vary among various cultures and in various nations. They performs necessary functions for both the individual members of family and for whole society. The capitalist social organization refers t o the institution where the family plays the significant role in strengthening their members and encouraging them to attain future objectives. In addition, they have also contributed to stability in society by holding their religious values. In other words, the family cohesiveness as well as moral strength helps this social organization in stabilizing the society both economically and socially. The effective role of the families that they play in the capitalist social organization is nurturing as well as supporting their individual members that includes promoting as well as safeguarding the children health, instilling social values within their members and achieve the goal that ensures the future generations being productive as well as socially responsible. They also plays the role in safeguarding social alienation. The structure of the family and their composition has also been influenced by both the political as well as socio-economic changes. Moreover, the family playing the vita l role in social organization adversely affects the capitalist society by making the members overconfident in reaching their target level. References Alesina, A., Ardagna, S. and Trebbi, F., 2016.Who adjusts and when? On the political economy of reforms(No. w12049). National Bureau of Economic Research. Apple, M.W., 2013.Teachers and texts: A political economy of class and gender relations in education. Routledge. Bartels, L.M., 2016.Unequal democracy: The political economy of the new gilded age. Princeton University Press. Berkman, L.F., Kawachi, I. and Glymour, M.M. eds., 2014.Social epidemiology. Oxford University Press. Blaikie, P., 2016.The political economy of soil erosion in developing countries. Routledge. Bott, E. and Spillius, E.B. eds., 2014.Family and social network: Roles, norms and external relationships in ordinary urban families. Routledge. Caletro, J., 2012. Global elites, privilege and mobilities in post-organized capitalism.Theory, Culture Society,29(2), pp.135-149. Deephouse, D.L. and Jaskiewicz, P., 2013. Do family firms have better reputations than non?family firms? An integration of socioemotional wealth and social identity theories.Journal of management Studies,50(3), pp.337-360. Esping-Andersen, G., 2013.The three worlds of welfare capitalism. John Wiley Sons. Firth, R., 2013.Elements of social organisation. Routledge. Fraser, N., 2012. Feminism, capitalism, and the cunning of history. Galaskiewicz, J., 2016.Social organization of an urban grants economy: A study of business philanthropy and nonprofit organizations. Elsevier. Genovese, E.D., 2014.The political economy of slavery: Studies in the economy and society of the slave South. Wesleyan University Press. George, J.M., 2014. Compassion and capitalism: Implications for organizational studies.Journal of Management,40(1), pp.5-15. Giddens, A., 2013.The third way: The renewal of social democracy. John Wiley Sons. Gilpin, R., 2016.The political economy of international relations. Princeton University Press. Glavin, P. and Schieman, S., 2012. Workfamily role blurring and workfamily conflict: The moderating influence of job resources and job demands.Work and Occupations,39(1), pp.71-98. Hayek, F.A., 2012.Law, legislation and liberty: a new statement of the liberal principles of justice and political economy. Routledge. Hodson, R. and Sullivan, T.A., 2012.The social organization of work. Cengage Learning. Lubinski, C., Fear, J. and Prez, P.F. eds., 2013.Family multinationals: entrepreneurship, governance, and pathways to internationalization(Vol. 23). Routledge. Rose-Ackerman, S., 2013.Corruption: A study in political economy. Academic Press. Sciascia, S., Mazzola, P., Astrachan, J.H. and Pieper, T.M., 2012. The role of family ownership in international entrepreneurship: Exploring nonlinear effects.Small Business Economics,38(1), pp.15-31.

Sunday, March 22, 2020

Ideological Differences and the Cold War free essay sample

To what extent were Ideological differences to blame for the Cold War? The two superpowers both United States and Soviet union relations after the Second World War were completely torn; the tension eventually became a status-quo where both ideologies neither were able to reconcile nor co-exist due to economical and polltlcal competition, The two Ideologies conflict then resulted In an arm race, boycott, and aggressive foreign policy, which were known as the cold war. It may be true that the both Ideologies capitalism and communism were the main reason that separated the two superpowers and European nations into two rival factions; owever, the ideology itself cannot solemnly be blame for causing the Cold War. The two ideologies conflict started take shape from 1945 until 1949 the twos competition actually became a wartare where the whole world would be Influence by the two superpowers. The post revisionist historians viewed the cold war as nothing more than power struggle between the two superpowers; the economic power and foreign Influence between two factions were merely motivated by suspicion, aggression, and fear. We will write a custom essay sample on Ideological Differences and the Cold War or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Europes stability was completely ruined after the Second World War, which the wo superpowers were able to create the sphere ot Influence In Europe, Both war victors united states and soviet union now had the authority to arbitrate over Europe, since most of the Europe economy was devastated by war expenditure. So right after 1945, both united States and Soviet Union took control over Germany where they were battling over foreign influence in Europe. The ideology element may play the part why both superpowers were meddling with European nations stability matter: however, It Is very controversial to argue that there were other elements. 30th orthodox and revlslonlst historians blamed either superpowers Ideologically- riven expansionism where post revisionist historians thought It was much more complex than merely ideological difference. The US president Harry Truman and Soviet Union leader Stalin were the main representatives of two different ideologies. 80th Truman and Stalin were obstinate about their ideologies: they both didnt placate ones another ideology. The post revisionist historian believed the tension between the two superpowers was due to the failure of successor, Harry Truman to carry on what the Roosevelts administration had In mind for Soviet union. They said that Roosevelt did not regard Marxism-Leninism as a great threat. Communism, which concentrated on subversion and propaganda, was not as dangerous as fascism. He perceived that Russian national interest was more significant than Ideology in tashioning Stalins policies (Mccauley). In Yalta Conterence February 4 1945, Roosevelt sought no hostlllty with Stalin and tried to appease him. President Truman, however, excluded by Roosevelt from decision making, was woefully Ignorant of foreign affairs. He immediately turned to the former Presidents key advisers and they grasped the opportunity to push the give-and-take policies which Roosevelt had ailed to adopt (Mccauley)_ Truman underestimated Stalin and Soviet unions ability to stand alone, believing that their superiority is the last one standing. Theretore the aftermath of Postdam conference from 1945, which Truman menuon their Powerful new weapon tnat was demonstrated In Japan, Increased tne tenslon Detween tne two superpower s even more. A revisionist historian Gar Alperovitz stated, The bomb was unnecessary in defeating Japan, and was intended instead as a provocative signal to the Soviets that the United States would use such a weapon to fashion a postwar world accessible to American interests. Therefore contrast between two US presidents in Yalta and Postdam conferences showed that the increasing tension between two superpowers wasnt mainly due to ideological difference, rather it was Trumans lack of experience and Judgment had worsened the two relations. Germany was divided into two regions after the Postdam conference where one was occupied by democratic nations, and the other was occupied by USSR communist. Germany division represented the separation of Western and Eastern Europe, which it really highlighted the two different ideologies factions. Many argued that the long elegram was one of mainly element that led to isolation policy and long term dislike between two superpowers. According to George F. Kennan in his famous long telegram of 22 February 1946, and in his anonymous article The Sources of Soviet Conduct in July 1947 (Mccauley) the orthodox historian believed that the blame was on Soviet Unions ideology. From one of orthodox historians states, The wellsprings of the Cold War are to be found in Marxism-Leninism with its doctrine of class struggle leading to revolution of a world scale (Mccauleyb clearly stating the cause or the Cold War started since Bolshevik revolution in 1917. By the end of 1948 the overwhelming majority of American and West European politicians had adopted George F. Kennans analysis. Orthodox historians regard the policies of the Soviet government vis-Â ¤-vis capitalist states as Fundamentally hostile, merely tempered by cooperation when deemed necessary (Mccauley). Michael Hart, also an orthodox historian, said, The Cold War was caused by the military expansionism of Stalin and his successors. The American response was basically a defensive reaction. As long s Soviet leaders clung to their dream of imposing Communism on the world, the West had no way (other than surrender) of ending the conflict. When a Soviet leader appeared who was willing to abandon that goal, the seemingly interminable Cold War soon melted away. The occupation of East Germany and spread of communism in Eastern Europe all seemed as the nature of aggressive Soviet Expansionism. The division of Germany was an example to show ideological difference and separation of two superpowers influence. This led to iron curtain, Berlin blockade and airlift in 948 and 1949 to demonstrate the ideological battle between two powers. US in the other hand tried to placate Soviet Union, The Truman administration continued to seek cooperation with USSR, despite increasing exasperation at Soviet intransigence in the United Nations, and at their inability to pierce the iron curtain (Mccauley). However, the revisionist historians argument was basically that the Soviet Unions ideology expansion cannot be held in account for hostile behavior. They believed that Soviet Unions stability was completely ruin after the Second World War where they arrowly escaped defeat with its enormous human and material losses meant that by 1945, it was near economic ruin. Therefore confronted by their rival ideology and prosperous nation United States, the Soviet Union was intimidated by their power influence. In order to prevent any threat happening from Germany they needed to create a buffer zone, Its security needs led it to seek governments in contiguous state wnlcn were not antl-sovlet ana to ensure tnat no mllltary tnreat ever emanated again from German soil (Mccauley). In July 1947 the United States suggested the Soviet Union to reconstruct the Europes economic stability, the Marshall Plan. However, after all the attempts to have partnership, the United States had no choice but to have priority to use the containment of communist expansionism in order to protect non-communist European states because Soviet Union refused all these offers of cooperation. The Soviet Union couldnt let that happen because, Threat to its security interests in eastern and southeastern Europe, particularly as American trade and investment were frequently accompanied by militant anti-communism (Mccauley). Therefore despite the fact that there was ideological difference, the US tried to sort out their differences and tried to placate Soviet Union; however, for Soviet Union it was strategically necessary to act against US foreign policy for their national safety. However, the ideological difference did play significant in the Marshall Plan because it was found in the American economic and political system. They said, The liberal capitalist US economy needed ever increasing trade and investment opportunities to overcome its endemic weaknesses, this in turn implied the expansion of American political influence (Mccauley). The Marshall Plan was designed to create an informal American empire in Europe and thereby to extend American political influence over the USSR itself. US involvement in the war against Japan and Germany was the desire to maintain and to expand where possible the US share in the world economy, since Japan and Germany were in the process of establishing autarkic empires (Mccauley). Roosevelt and Truman and their advisors already predicted the threat of Soviet Expansionism, and that they tried to restrain the Soviets from changing the international order in a way that would have been as angerous to Western interests. Therefore Marshall Plan then led to Truman Doctrine, and establishment of NATO in 1949, which not only did it influence Europe to be under control by American imperialism, but also did not support Soviet Union because the United States implanted anti-communism propaganda. American pressure and the Western decision to form blocs resulted in the Soviet Union seeking greater political conformity in eastern and south-eastern Europe, which it was an ideological struggle in political and economical elements. It is much reasonable to gree with Post-revisionist historians argument because it has both Western and Soviet Unions perspective. Orthodox and post revisionist historians would slightly be one-sided where orthodox historians were influenced during the beginning of the Cold War era, and Post revisionist historians were popular when the United States was involved in Vietnam War. The weaknesses of the orthodox and revisionist analyses are evident: the former pays little attention to the legitimate security needs of the USSR, while the latter ignores Soviet behavior which gave rise to shifts in American policy (Mccauley). Post-revisionist historians interpretations sought to avoid the polarities of Blame-it-all-on-the Soviets or blame-it-all-on-the-Americans. They also acquired the Soviets historian knowledge when the Soviet archive was accessible. They emphasized the element Fear and Apprehension as the main reason for leading the two superpowers to the Cold War as they both sought for military, politic, economic superiority over one another, and would simply Justify it as an ideological difference. I nougn tne world was alvlaea Dy two Ideologies, tne causes 0T tne 010 c war cannot olemnly be interpreted by ideological difference. That is why the Cold War is viewed differently by many historians such as orthodox, revisionist, and post revisionist historian. There are many substantial evidences that support those interpretations of the Cold War, and all of them are respectfully recognized by other historians. However, believe that the Cold War mainly because of fear of either superpowers being dominated by one another, such anticipation risen to extreme case where both United States and Soviet Union hyperbolically creating two huge factions, and separating themselves by ideological difference.

Thursday, March 5, 2020

Poor Working Conditions essays

Poor Working Conditions essays POOR WORKING CONDITIONS IN CANADA AT TURN OF CENTURY What was life like of a Canadian worker like at the turn of the century? Try to place yourself back in time as your life as a worker would have been quite different from what it is today. In 1900, Canada consisted of only six provinces. Most Canadians lived on farms. Many young people left school early as they were required on the farms. In the city, their wages helped pay for the family's food and rent. The cities were starting to grow. Factories and stores thrived. People found several jobs in construction and manufacturing. People tended to marry young and start raising families early. Adult responsibilities came quickly. As well, Canada began to receive waves of immigrants, many of whom chose to settle and develop the vast stretches of the fertile. But in reality, life in the 1900's was depressing and was an era filled with extreme hard and strenuous work that didn't offer any future for the average Canadian in doing better. If you were an average wage earner, you would be virtu ally stuck in the same job for the rest of your life, while the rich maintained their wealth mainly caused by low taxes. Most people earned their living through the sweat of their brow. The hours were long, salaries were low and living conditions were poor for the average Canadian and even worse for the arriving immigrants. The experiences of the farm workers were the most harrowing. Work on farms meant long hours of labor, six days straight with hardly a moments rest. The typical working day started at 6:00am and ended at 6:00pm, except in the summer when laborers were expected to work until sundown as late at 10:00pm. At the turn of the 20th Century, Canadian men and women demanded social, political and economic change as the country underwent the greatest transformation in its history. In the cities, business was booming but social injustice accompanied rising industrialization. There were a few p ...

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Analysis - Essay Example The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Analysis â€Å"The oil spill threatens to create large-scale environmental disaster due to factors such as the toxic effects of petroleum and oxygen depletion in the water† (Turner 2010). The pollution caused due to the chemicals used to clean-up the oil spill can damage the food chain of the animals due to depletion of oxygen content in the water. Besides polluting the beaches around the actual source of spill, the oil could flow with the water current and move to the Atlantic Ocean. There it can pose a serious threat to the wild life, if they tend to swim to the area from other places. Thus, the spill has a disastrous environmental impact globally. The clean-up efforts are also not easy and the toxic compounds in the air caused due to the pollution from the spill pose great threat to the workers involved in the effort. This can be seen from the fact that ten workers involved in the clean-up operation had to be admitted to hospital with respiratory tract problems. The seafood industry is also highly endangered by this disaster as the commercial sea food swamps in the coastal areas of the spill can be contaminated. The spill has been estimated to have cost the fisheries industry an estimated $2.5billion as per initial calculations (Turner 2010). Tourism industry has also been hit badly as the beaches have to be closed down. Tourists have cancelled their vacation bookings at beaches which are yet untouched by the oil from the spill.